The effect of the wings of single engine airplanes on propulsive efficiency as shown by full scale wind tunnel tests

Fred E. Weick, Donald H. Wood
naca-tn-322
Oct 1929


An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the wings on propulsive efficiency. The wings are shown to cause a reduction of 1 percent to 3 percent in propulsive efficiency, which is about the same for monoplane as well as biplane wings.

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http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/reports/1929/naca-tn-322.pdf