Von Glahn, Uwe H
The proximity of the ground to an annular nozzle can result in thrust augmentation of up to 50 percent. The magnitude of thrust augmentation was a function of ground-to-nozzle distance, nozzle configuration, and nozzle pressure ratio. With a conventional circular nozzle a thrust reduction of 15 to 40 percent due to ground effect was obtained. The degree of thrust reduction was primarily a function of nozzle pressure ratio and ground-to-nozzle distance.
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