An investigation of the coefficient of discharge of liquids through small round orifices

Joachim, W F
naca-report-224
1926


The work covered by this report was undertaken in connection with a general investigation of fuel injection engine principles as applied to engines for aircraft propulsion, the specific purpose being to obtain information on the coefficient of discharge of small round orifices suitable for use as fuel injection nozzles. Values for the coefficient were determined for the more important conditions of engine service such as discharge under pressures up to 8,000 pounds per square inch, at temperatures between 80 degrees and 180 degrees F. And into air compressed to pressures up to 1,000 pounds per square inch. The results show that the coefficient ranges between 0.62 and 0.88 for the different test conditions between 1,000 and 8,000 pounds per square inch hydraulic pressure. At lower pressures the coefficient increases materially. It is concluded that within the range of these tests and for hydraulic pressures above 1,000 pound per square inch the coefficient does not change materially with pressure or temperature; that it depends considerably upon the liquid, decreases with increase in orifice size, and increases in the case of discharge into compressed air until the compressed-air pressure equals approximately three-tenths of the hydraulic pressure, beyond which pressure ratio it remains practically constant.

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