H. W. Liepmann, G. T. Skinner
The rate of local heat transfer from a solid surface to a moving fluid is related to the local skin friction. Measurements of heat transfer from small elements embedded in the surface of a solid can thus be used to obtain local skin-friction coefficients. The method was applied by Fage and Falkner for laminar boundary layers and by Ludwieg for turbulent boundary layers.
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