J. C. Richmond, D. G. Moore, H. B. Kirkpatrick, W. N. Harrison
Porcelain-enamel ground coats were prepared and applied under conditions that gave various degrees of adherence between enamel and a low-carbon steel (enameling iron). The variations in adherence were produced by (a) varying the amount of cobalt-oxide addition in the frit, (b) varying the type of metallic-oxide addition in the frit, keeping the amount constant at 0.8 weight percent, (c) varying the surface treatment of the metal before application of the enamel, by pickling, sandblasting, and polishing, and (d) varying the time of firing of the enamel containing 0.8 percent of cobalt oxide. Specimens of each enamel were given the standard adherence test of the Porcelain Enamel Institute. Metallographic sections were made on which the roughness of interface was evaluated by counting the number of anchor points (undercuts) per centimeter of specimen length and also by measuring the length of the interface and expressing results as the ratio of this length to the length of a straight line parallel to the over-all direction of the interface.
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