Smoke studies of secondary flows in bends, tandem cascades, and high-turning configurations

Hansen, Arthur G., Costello, George R., Herzig, Howard Z.

Flow-visualization studies, using smoke, were made of the secondary flows in rectangular bends, tandem cascades, and high-turning configurations. The roll-up of the wall boundary layer of a rectangular bend forms a passage vortex near the suction surface similar to that previously observed for cascades. The vortex so formed then shifts out into the main stream. Because of leading-edge effects, the boundary-layer flows in bends were found to be sufficiently different from the flows in blade rows to make direct application of bend results to blade rows inadvisable. Passage vortices are shown, in the tandem-cascade study, to resist turning with the main stream through which they pass and to disturb the flow in subsequent blade rows. This disturbance may explain in part the appreciable size of the losses sometimes attributed to secondary flows in turbomachines despite the fact that the energy involvement in vortex formation is slight. Tip-flow studies of high-turning blades with relative motion between blades and end wall indicated that if the relative sizes of the passage vortex forces, the tip clearance forces, and the blade-scraping effects are properly controlled, it may be possible to improve the blade-tip loading characteristics in turbomachine.

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