On the one-dimensional theory of steady compressible fluid flow in ducts with friction and heat addition

Hicks, Bruce L Montgomery, Donald Wasserman, Robert H
July 1947

Steady, diabatic (nonadiabatic), frictional, variable-area flow of a compressible fluid is treated in differential form on the basis of the one-dimensional approximation. The basic equations are first stated in terms of pressure, temperature, density, and velocity of the fluid. Considerable simplification and unification of the equations are then achieved by choosing the square of the local Mach number as one of the variables to describe the flow. The transformed system of equations thus obtained is first examined with regard to the existence of a solution. It is shown that, in general, a solution exists whose calculation requires knowledge only of the variation with position of any three of the dependent variables of the system. The direction of change of the flow variables can be obtained directly from the transformed equations without integration. As examples of this application of the equations, the direction of change of the flow variables is determined for two special flows. In the particular case when the local Mach number m = 1, a special condition must be satisfied by the flow if a solution is to exist. This condition restricts the joint rate of variation of heating, friction, and area at m = 1. Further analysis indicates that when a solution exists at this point it is not necessarily unique. Finally it is shown that the physical phenomenon of choking, which is known to occur in certain simple flow situations, is related to restrictions imposed on the variables by the form of the transformed equations. The phenomenon of choking is thus given a more general significance in that the transformed equations apply to a more general type of flow than has hitherto been treated. (author)

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