Elastic properties in tension and shear of high strength nonferrous metals and stainless steel - effect of previous deformation and heat treatment

Mebs, R W (National Bureau of Standards) Mcadam, D J (National Bureau of Standards)
March 1947

A resume is given of an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation and of annealing temperature on the tensile and shear elastic properties of high strength nonferrous metals and stainless steels in the form of rods and tubes. The data were obtained from earlier technical reports and notes, and from unpublished work in this investigation. There are also included data obtained from published and unpublished work performed on an independent investigation. The rod materials, namely, nickel, monel, inconel, copper, 13:2 Cr-Ni steel, and 18:8 Cr-Ni steel, were tested in tension; 18:8 Cr-Ni steel tubes were tested in shear, and nickel, monel, aluminum-monel, and Inconel tubes were tested in both tension and shear. There are first described experiments on the relationship between hysteresis and creep, as obtained with repeated cyclic stressing of annealed stainless steel specimens over a constant load range. These tests, which preceded the measurements of elastic properties, assisted in devising the loading time schedule used in such measurements. From corrected stress-set curves are derived the five proof stresses used as indices of elastic or yield strength. From corrected stress-strain curves are derived the secant modulus and its variation with stress. The relationship between the forms of the stress-set and stress-strain curves and the values of the properties derived is discussed. Curves of variation of proof stress and modulus with prior extension, as obtained with single rod specimens, consist in wavelike basic curves with superposed oscillations due to differences of rest interval and extension spacing; the effects of these differences are studied. Oscillations of proof stress and modulus are generally opposite in manner. The use of a series of tubular specimens corresponding to different amounts of prior extension of cold reduction gave curves almost devoid of oscillation since the effects of variation of rest interval and extension spacing were removed. Comparison is also obtained between the variation of the several properties, as measured in tension and in shear. The rise of proof stress with extension is studied, and the work-hardening rates of the various metals evaluated. The ratio between the tensile and shear proof stresses for the various annealed and cold-worked tubular metals is likewise calculated. The influence of annealing or tempering temperature on the proof stresses and moduli for the cold-worked metals and for air-hardened 13:2 Cr-Ni steel is investigated. An improvement of elastic strength generally is obtained, without important loss of yield strength, by annealing at suitable temperature. The variation of the proof stress and modulus of elasticity with plastic deformation or annealing temperature is explained in terms of the relative dominance of three important factors: namely, (a) internal stress, (b) lattice-expansion or work-hardening, and (c) crystal reorientation. Effective values of Poisson's ratio were computed from tensile and shear moduli obtained on tubular specimens. The variation of Poisson's ratio with plastic deformation and annealing temperature is explained in terms of the degree of anisotropy produced by changes of (a) internal stress and (b) crystal orientation.

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