Ground effect on downwash angles and wake location

Katzoff, S Sweberg, Harold H

A theoretical study was made of the reduction in downwash and the upward displacement of the wake in the presence of the ground, and some verification of theory was obtained by means of air-flow measurements made with a ground-board and image-wing combination. Methods are given for estimating the effects and numerous examples are included to illustrate the nature of these effects and to show their order of magnitude.

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