Wind-tunnel investigation of ground effect on wings with flaps

Recant, Isidore G
naca-tn-705
May 1939


An investigation was conducted in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the effect of ground proximity on the aerodynamic characteristics of wings equipped with high-lift devices. A rectangular and a tapered wing were tested without flaps, with a split flap, and with a slotted flap. The ground was represented by a flat plate, completely spanning the tunnel and extending a considerable distance ahead and back of the model. The position of the plate was varied from one-half to three chord lengths below the wing. The results are presented in the form of curves of absolute coefficients, showing the effect of the ground on each wing arrangement. The effect of the ground on lift, drag, and pitching moment is discussed. An appendix gives equations for calculating tunnel-wall corrections to be applied to ground-effect tests conducted in rectangular tunnels when a plate is used to represent the ground. The tests indicated that the ground effect on wings with flaps is a marked decrease in drag, a decrease in diving moment, and a substantial reduction in maximum lift.

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http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/reports/1939/naca-tn-705.pdf