The effect of staggering a biplane

F. H. Norton
naca-tn-70
Sep 1921


This investigation was carried out by request of the United States Air Service at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology wind tunnel in 1918. As the data collected may be of general interest, they are published here by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The lift, drag, and center of pressure travel are determined for a biplane with a stagger varying from +100% to -100%. It is found that the efficiency and the maximum lift increase with positive stagger. With large positive staggers the center of pressure is far forward and has a very slight travel with changes in lift coefficient.

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http://naca.central.cranfield.ac.uk/reports/1921/naca-tn-70.pdf