Effect of nozzle design on fuel spray and flame formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine

Rothrock, A M Waldron, C D

Fuel was injected from different type of injection nozzles into the combustion chamber of the NACA combustion apparatus, operated as a compression-ignition engine. High speed motion pictures were taken of the fuel sprays and combustion. Single-orifice nozzles of 0.008, 0.020, and 0.040 inch diameter, and multiorifice nozzles having 2, 6, and 16 orifices were tested. Nozzles having impinging jets and slit orifices were also included. The photographs indicate that the rate of vapor diffusion from the spray is comparatively slow and that this slow rate of diffusion for combustion chambers with little or no air flow prevents the compression-ignition engine from giving the high performance inherent in the high compression ratios. The sprays from the multiorifice nozzles destroyed the air movement to a greater extent than did those from single orifice nozzles. It is concluded that high performance cannot be realized until the methods of distributing the fuel are improved by means of the injection-nozzle design, air flow, or both.

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