Measurements of rudder moments on an airplane during flight

Ing V. Heidelberg
Jan 1921

Tests indicated that: 1) C airplanes with two struts are extremely susceptible to aileron maneuvers, slight alterations of the aileron sufficing to compensate great unequalized moments; 2) great unequalized moments can be produced or neutralized by the unequalized alternation of the angle of attack below the outer and inner struts. Adjustment below the outer strut is the more effective of the two. 3) When a load of bombs is suspended beyond the center of the airplane, below the wings, the bombs need not be dropped simultaneously. 4) The propeller wash of a wide open engine has considerable influence on the position and operation of the elevator. The elevator is more susceptible in flight with the engine running than in gliding flight. 5) Adjustable tail planes are not advisable for D airplanes, nor for the C type, but they are, on the other hand, to be recommended for large size and giant airplanes in which the center of gravity changes during flight. 6) The aileron values obtained by wind tunnel measurements are about 10 percent too low, though otherwise applicable. For the elevator, the results of such measurements should be taken as mean values between flight with the engine running and gliding flight.

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