Working charts for the determination of the lift distribution between biplane wings

Kuhn, Paul

In this report are presented empirical working charts from which the distribution of lift between wings, that is the fraction of the total lift borne by each, can be determined in the positive lift range for any ordinary biplane cellule whose individual wings have the same profile. The variables taken directly into account include airfoil section, stagger, gap/chord ratio, decalage, chord ratio, and overhang. It is shown that the influence of unequal sweepback and unequal dihedral in upper and lower wings may be properly provided for by utilizing the concepts of average stagger and average gap/chord ratio, respectively. The effect of other variables is discussed, but they have not been included in the charts either because their influence was obviously small or because insufficient data existed to make possible a complete determination of their influence. All available pertinent biplane data were analyzed in establishing the charts, and in some cases theoretical relationships were utilized to establish qualitative tendencies.

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