Wind tunnel research comparing lateral control devices, particularly at high angles of attack X : various control devices on a wing with a fixed auxiliary airfoil

Weick, Fred E Noyes, Richard W
March 1933

Results are given of a series of systemic tests comparing lateral control devices with particular reference to their effectiveness at high angles of attack. These tests were made with two sizes of ordinary ailerons and different sizes of spoilers on a Clark Y wing model having a narrow auxiliary airfoil fixed ahead and above the leading edge, the chords of the main and auxiliary airfoils being parallel. In addition, the auxiliary airfoil itself was given angular deflection. The purpose was to provide rolling moments for lateral control. The tests were made in a 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel. They included both force and rotation tests to show the effect of the devices on the lift and drag characteristics of the wing and on the lateral stability characteristics, as well as lateral control. They showed that none of the aileron arrangements tried would give rolling control of an assumed satisfactory value at all angles of attack up to the stall. However, they would give satisfactory values, but at the expense of abnormally high deflections and very heavy hinge moments. The most effective combination of ailerons and spoilers gave satisfactory values of rolling moment at angles of attack below the stall, and the values did not fall off as rapidly above the stall as with ailerons alone. With an arrangement of this type having the proper relative proportions and linkage, it should be possible to obtain reasonably satisfactory yawing moments and control forces. Deflecting one-half of the auxiliary airfoil downward for the purpose of control gave strong favorable yawing moments at all angles of attack, but gave very small rolling moments at the low angles of attack.

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